This book provides a scientific basis for the effective treatment and utilization of livestock and poultry manure and organic solid waste through the composting process. Its significance lies in the protection of the ecological environment and the sustainable development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The book covers various topics, including research progress on livestock and poultry manure pollution, composting treatment, and lime nitrogen. It also delves into the inhibitory effect of lime nitrogen on pathogenic microorganisms during the composting process, as well as its impact on the composting effect and the safety of compost products. The findings can be used by researchers engaged in composting and the resource utilization of composting products, as well as the development of lime nitrogen production enterprises. Additionally, the book discusses the effect of cow manure solid composting on bedding mats and the screening of low-temperature cellulose-degrading bacteria. Overall, this book provides new technical ideas and references for the field of composting.