TB is very contagious in its pulmonary form and constitutes in all prisons of the world a major public health problem including in Cameroon where due to multiple crises, inmate size continues to grow with occupancy rates up to 294%. This study has as objective to evaluate retrospectively for the period 2016 to 2018, the effectiveness of the ICRC’s QOL programme of Bertoua prison in controlling TB among inmates compared to the Douala prison where that programme is absent. As results, there is little improvement in the Bertoua prison on contrary in Douala prison, regarding the therapeutic success rate attributed to the respect of special needs for the TB and Aids patients with a better access to basic medical care, at least 2 meals per day, water for all use, etc. Despite this, due to the large occupancy rates in both prisons, the risk model for contracting TB showed on average a unit increase in TB cases for 5 additional detainees, translated by the following equation:[Incidence=5.66 (overcrowding)+164.74]. So to conclude, this programme should be improved by epidemiological TB investigations, the transparent justice and the use of incarceration alternatives.